Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence

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Robert W. White (psychologist)

Mastery motivation is related to which personality attribute? Do mastery goals and performance goals share similar long-term outcomes? Drive Reduction Theory can help explain mastery orientation -. In conclusion, research has shown that mastery motivation is related to intrinsic motivation, and therefore it develops from a drive within the individual. Such motivation can be acquired by anyone who develops the necessary traits such as perseverance and an internal locus of control within themselves. Psychologists argue that mastery orientation carries an approach rather than avoidance oriented outlook, and many of the most positive qualities including seeking out challenges, perseverance, and a desire to continue learning.

Although counter-intuitive, the latest research findings suggest that extrinsic environmental events may diminish the drive for mastery, as the development of mastery requires no rewards or incentives. For mastery motivation to develop optimally, an individual must have a sense of autonomy and competence, along with achievement goals and a genuine interest in the activity.

Without a genuine interest in the task an individual will be unable to dedicate the amount of time it will take to achieve mastery, and they may stagnate growth due to boredom or anxiety. Hopefully readers will feel inspired by these findings, and implement them to enhance their own mastery oriented pursuits on their path towards self-actualization. Mastery and flow: What is the role of flow in motivating people to pursue excellence? Book Chapter, Theory of goal setting and task performance Book Chapter, Extrinsic motivation: What is extrinsic motivation?

How can extrinsic motivation be effectively used? Intrinsic motivation: What is intrinsic motivation and how can it be fostered? Workplace motivation: Using Self-Determination Theory to create sustained motivation in the workplace Book Chapter, Achievement Motivation: What is it and how can it be fostered? Extreme achievers: What motivates them and how can others do what they do? Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Prioritising your needs and reaching towards self-actualisation Book Chapter, Ames, C. Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 3 , Bandalos, D. A model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 3 , pp.

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Busch-Rossnagel, N. Mastery motivation, preschool and early childhood. Lerner Eds.

What is COMPETENCE? What does COMPETENCE mean? COMPETENCE meaning, definition & explanation

Csikszentmihalyi, M. Deci, E. The effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, , Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum. Dichter-Blancher, T. Mastery motivation: Appropriate tasks for toddlers, Infant Behavior and Development, —, doi: Dweck, C.

Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41 10 , A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality.

Psychological Review, 95, — Elliot, A. A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, — Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26 4 , Gottfried, A.

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Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 3— A longitudinal study of academic intrinsic motivation in intellectually gifted children: Childhood through adolescence. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, — Hardre, P. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, Keller, J.

Flow and regulatory compatibility: An experimental approach to the flow model of intrinsic motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, Klose, L. Understanding and fostering achievement motivation. Principal Leadership, Lee, J. The relationship between future goals and achievement goal orientation: An intrinsic-extrinsic motivation perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, Lubinski, D.

States of excellence. American Psychologist, 55 1 , Marshik, T. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. McClelland, D. How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ?. Psychological review, 96 4 , Messer, D.


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Relation between mastery behavior in infancy and competence in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, Vol 22 3 , Nicholls, J. What is ability and why are we mindful of it? A developmental perspective. Kolligian Eds. Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, Pink, D. Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Pintrich, P. The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning.

Personal Projects and Free Traits: Personality and Motivation Reconsidered

Handbook of self-regulation: Theory, research, and applications pp. Further evidence of the impact of cognitive complexity on the five-factor model. Social Behaviour and Personality , 40 7 , — Meta-analysis of intercultural communication competence research. Charles, L. Chen, G. Intercultural communication competence: Some perspectives of research. The Howard Journal of Communications , 2 3 , — A review of the concept of intercultural sensitivity.

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